On my never-ending quest to learn more about the Medieval period, I have stumbled on several really great books and websites about Medieval cooking and dining.
Of course, the types of food varied with region (although traders brought "exotic" food from other areas/countries) and the wealth of the diner. The wealthier nobles ate richer, more varied foods than peasants and they could afford spices and better ingredients.
Spices also had another function - to preserve foods since they lacked sophisticated storage methods. And since spices were so valuable, they had to be locked up. Along the line of spices, royal establishments had a "spicery" who oversaw the quantity of spices used in cooking (to be sure people weren't overusing or stealing). Spices of this period included cinnamon, mace, cloves, pepper, ginger, nutmegs, and caraways.
Books of interest: