Every once in awhile the History Channel re-runs its Wild West tech series. I also found some videos available at my local library or you can watch pieces of the shows on YouTube. I really like the shows because they offer a vivid image of what life was like during the Old West sprinkled with facts and research that I can use for my own works in progress.
This particular episode, Native American Tech, deals with some of the interesting facets of native life including some famous chiefs, fighting tactics, and daily life.
During the gold strikes of Montanan, in the early 1860s, white miners would flow in and several government issued forts appeared along what is now known as the Bozenman Trail (1864). Additionally, there were constant army supply wagons to restock the forts - temptation for nearby natives, such as the Lakota, who found them easy pickings.
The main weapon of natives was the bow and arrow (until later when white settlers traded guns to them). Arrowheads have been found as early as 500 BC and were brought to the plains for hunting. Originally made of flint or obsidian (very sharp), they could travel 100 feet per second. Later arrowheads were made of iron. The arrow shaft was made of a light wood such as ash or hickory and decorated with turkey or hawk feathers. Eagle feathers were too fragile and were rarely used. Bows were under 3 feet long and had a range of about 60-75 yards.
Horses were introduced to natives by the Spanish after 1500. The Commanche tribe excelled at horsemanship. They could jump on and off a horse and shoot arrows while moving. Dogs were used as beasts of burden and pulled travois (a type of sled) loaded with hundreds of pounds.
Commanche and Lakota had portable tipis that could be packed up within an hour but were strong enough to withstand gale force winds. They were typical tipi design - 3 pole tripod with several supporting poles and a hide cover.
By 1890, all plains indians were on reservations.
You can view
part of the episode.